Phalanx combat during the selected historical period tended to be between similarly armed combatants.
A hoplite within a phalanx from any given Greek city state would be armed alike, with a rounded three foot shield, called
a hoplon, and an eight foot spear. The hoplite fight with similar tactics of forming into a column, usually eight ranks deep,
where protection would be found in the form of the accumulation of shields to the front rear and sides (Hanson(1995), 297).
Therefore, if the opposing phalanxes are modeled with similar organization and tactics, the differences in technology, weapons
and tactics can be removed from the equations and ignored. A direct comparison of the effect of the cohesion within the units
and its effect on the performance can be better studied.
The phalanx formation was closely affected by the stress and fear each hoplite experienced during
a combat incident. Hoplites experienced battle fear ranging from violent heart pounding, to a sinking feeling in the heart,to
involuntary urination. In Greek warfare each man in the ranks had to
confront the horror of close combat and be able to
stand or run depending upon the psychological state at any given time (Hanson (1989), 191).Therefore, the stress effects within
a phalanx become important factors for the cohesion during combat and if modeled will add to the understanding
Hanson, Victor Davis. The Other Greeks: The Family and the AgrarianRoots of Western Civilization. The Free Press, Simon
& Schuster. NewYork, 1995.
Hanson, Victor Davis. The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in ClassicalGreece. University of California Press, Berkley,